Clone a MySQL instance from one slave to another
This tutorial documents the process behind adding a new slave to a MySQL senvironment where an existing slave may or may not already exist. The process involves cloning data from an existing replication slave on to a new slave, thus keeping the replication configuration intact. After the initial synchronisation from the existing to the new slave, both the new and existing slaves will replicate directly from the master.
In this how-to, we’re using…
slave$ to denote commands to be run on the existing slave
slave:mysql> to denote commands to be run in the original slave’s
backup$ to denote commands to be run on the new slave
backup:mysql> to denote commands to be run in the new slave’s MySQL
- Lock the original slave, preventing writes to it
- Copy the data from original slave to your folder on the new slave
- Unlock the original slave and tidy up
- Move the data on the new slave
- Start the new slave
1. Lock the original slave to prevent writes
First, find out the MySQL root password. This is in hieradata in the deployment repo.
Open an SSH connection to slave (this connection will remain open for the duration of the operation so it makes sense to do it in screen or tmux):
slave$: mysql -u root -p Password:
We need to stop MySQL slaving on the original slave - the master host need not be touched as we are replicating data from existing to new slave. Once done, we need to then flush the tables and apply a read lock to ensure no new data is written during the period we are copying data from the existing to the new slave. Issue the following commands to MySQL:
slave:mysql> SLAVE STOP; slave:mysql> FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK;
At this point, the connection _must_ remain open and in MySQL, so switch to a new console and login to the slave again via SSH.
2. Copy the data from the original slave to your directory on the new slave
On your second terminal, login to the original MySQL slave again.
You are going to need to temporarily copy your SSH Private Key .ssh/id_rsa to your home directory on the original slave server. There’s no easy way around this, as while we can forward the SSH agent from your personal machine to the original server, we’re going to be running the SSH command as root which will need access to your key. Make sure the file is chmod 0600 otherwise SSH will fail.
Once you have done that, copy the entire contents of /var/lib/mysql from the original server to your home directory on the new server:
sudo rsync --delete --exclude 'relay-log.info' --exclude 'mysql-bin*' --exclude 'mysql-slave*' -Wavze "ssh -i /home/username/.ssh/id_rsa" /var/lib/mysql/ username@mysql-backup-1:mysql
-a is archive mode, which is - in essence - a shortcut to using ’-r -l -p -t -g -o -D’, which are common switches used during backups.
: -v is versbose -P shows progress during the transfer -h makes the output from rsync human-readable –stats tells rsync to report on the connection speed and such. Progress is already reported using -P.
Sometimes, for some unknown reason, rsync will fail to copy across all of the data. This manifests itself as MySQL complaining when you run
SHOW SLAVE STATUS\Gin a MySQL prompt that it could not find certain tables.
Both rsync and tarball/scp methods take some time - possibly a number of hours.
3. Unlock the original slave and tidy up
When it is finished, switch back to your first terminal. You should still be at the MySQL prompt. Unlock it:
slave:mysql> UNLOCK TABLES; slave:mysql> SLAVE START;
The original slave should then begin to catch up with master. You can monitor this with:
slave:mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G
You should see that seconds_behind_master drops to 0.
DO NOT FORGET TO REMOVE YOUR SSH PRIVATE KEY FROM THE SLAVE!
4. Move the data on the new slave
Login to the new slave server via SSH and stop MySQL:
backup$: govuk_puppet --disable backup$: sudo service mysql stop
Delete the original MySQL data:
backup$: sudo rm -rf /var/lib/mysql
Move the mysql directory from your Home Directory to /var/lib:
backup$: sudo mv ~/mysql /var/lib/ backup$: sudo chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql
5. Start the new slave
Start MySQL and Puppet:
backup$: sudo service mysql start backup$: govuk_puppet --enable
Login to MySQL:
backup$: mysql -uroot -p Password: <the root password from the original slave> backup:mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G
You should see:
Slave_IO_Running: yes Slave_SQL_Running: yes Seconds_Behind_Master: <should be decreasing to 0>
You should now have two replication slaves, both with data, replicating
the master. The process above can be used for any new replication slaves
you wish to add in future. As you are copying the
from an existing replication slave, there are no configuration
amendments required. The slave will simply use the configuration copied
from the existing slave to replicate from the master.